(CNN)A month ago, Americans woke up to the horrible news that as we slept, the deadliest mass shooting in U.S. history the most violent terrorist attack on American soil since 9/11 — had just occurred in Orlando. As the terrible details began to circulate on June 12, we could scarcely comprehend that 49 innocent men and women, who had gone out for a night of dancing and fun with their friends, had been murdered in cold blood.
Apps such as Pokmon Go turn physical space into a game and as technology has done since the telegraph, we are subtly distributed via these connected tools
In his 1963 book God and Golem, the founder of the cybernetics movement Norbert Wiener suggested a compelling thought experiment. Imagine cutting off someones hand, he wrote, but leaving intact the key muscles and nerves. Theoretically, a prosthesis could connect directly both to nerves and muscles, giving the subject control of the replacement organ as if it were real.
So far so sensible: this scenario was a reasonable extrapolation at the time, and is close to becoming a reality today. Wiener, however, went further. Having imagined an artificial hand able to replace its original, he wondered why we should not now imagine the addition of an entirely new kind of limb or sensory organ? There is, he wrote, a prosthesis of parts which we do not have and which we never have had. There was no need to stop at nature. Human-machine integration could in theory blur its boundaries well beyond replacement.
Its 14 July 2016, and between typing this paragraph and the last I dashed outside with my iPhone to catch a Pokmon lurking next to a tree (a cute orange lizard: Charmander, weight 8.5kg, height 0.6m).
What would Wiener have made of this? I suspect he would have been delighted. While Im playing Pokmon, my smartphone functions much like a sensory prosthesis. In order to move my avatar around a map, I must move myself. When I get close enough to a target, I hold the device up and through its camera see something superimposed on the world that would otherwise be invisible. Its like having a sixth sense. My Pokmon-gathering escapades place me somewhere between a cyborg and a stamp collector.
Yet there are also elements in this species of enhancement that clash with Wieners vision. If I had a superhuman prosthetic eye able to see infrared like Arnies beloved cybernetic organism in the Terminator movies I could step outside into the dark with clear vision. I would have access to actuality in a fresh way: a machine-enhanced grasp of whats under my nose. This is the kind of enhancement that technology has offered humans over millennia. We move faster, further; we enhance the strength of our limbs, the reach of our wills; we look deep into space, or at the microscopic order of things. We magnify our scope and capacities.
None of this is quite like playing Pokmon. What I see and do while lobbing tiny balls at a cartoon orange lizard does not exist outside of the machines Im using. Yet nor is it a straightforward piece of mediation like reading a book or watching a movie. The experience is present on my screen, in my mind, and in the dance of data between mobile device, GPS satellites, mobile networks and distant servers. And everyone else with the right app is welcome to join in.
A clue to whats going on lies in a term first coined in 1990: augmented reality. Whats on offer is a supplement rather than straightforward enhancement: an act of layering and addition. My smartphone is not helping me to see the world with superhuman acuity (quite the reverse: I nearly fell into a canal while capturing that Charmander). Rather, its like a third eye opening onto the information realm a gaze overlooking the Earths oceans of data.
In a famous 1974 paper, the philosopher Thomas Nagel asked what it might feel like to be a bat. We cannot begin to discuss such a question, he argued, until we accept that the universe as experienced through a bats sensory organs is alien to our psychological reality. A bats primary sense is sonar. It may share a planet with us, but there is no bridge between our experiences.
What, I wonder, does it feel like to be an iPhone? I dont mean to imply that machines have feelings. Rather, Im intrigued by the fact that the inputs received by my smartphone its experienced reality, if you like are not tied to any particular location in the way my inputs are. Its world is the network. A query is issued, a matched response is served the device is above and beyond actuality as I experience it. And yet we continuously, solicitously interact. As communications technologies have done since at least the age of the telegraph, I am subtly distributed by my connection to the connected tool: blurred between networked spaces.
We are barely at the beginning of this process, one characterised by the astonishing intimacy of our interactions with and through digital devices. Information is everywhere and nowhere. It is simultaneous, placeless. Similarly, augmentation trumps enhancement because it is unconstrained by the actual because there is no limit to how far my experience of the world can be supplemented or supplanted. The free download of a single app turns physical space into a gameboard. Gleefully, my phone and I turn presence into play. In augmented reality, all the worlds a screen.
Today, Pokmon lives on my mobile device. Tomorrow by which I mean within five years it will make the magic leap to retinal projection, into something increasingly labelled mixed reality: the seamless interfacing of informational artefacts and environment.
As Wiener foretold half a century ago, the boundaries between human and machine experience are not so much interlacing as being erased. Is it a new sensory organ, this ever-more-intimate interface with information? Perhaps. Its certainly a mental prosthesis whose absence already feels crippling. We are beginning our migration towards a networked sensorium. The question is no longer how technology makes us feel. Its whether, without it, we are even ourselves.
(CNN)When the newly developed Mars 2020 rover lands on the Red Planet in February 2021 after embarking on a seven-month cruise through space, we will be able to hear sounds of the landing and the Martian surface for the first time, according to NASA.
We may be living through times of unprecedented change, but in uncertainty lies the power to influence the future. Now is not the time to despair, but to act
Your opponents would love you to believe that its hopeless, that you have no power, that theres no reason to act, that you cant win. Hope is a gift you dont have to surrender, a power you dont have to throw away. And though hope can be an act of defiance, defiance isnt enough reason to hope. But there are good reasons.
In 2003 and early 2004, I wrote a book to make the case for hope. Hope in the Dark was, in many ways, of its moment it was written against the tremendous despair at the height of the Bush administrations powers and the outset of the war in Iraq. That moment passed long ago, but despair, defeatism, cynicism and the amnesia and assumptions from which they often arise have not dispersed, even as the most wildly, unimaginably magnificent things came to pass. There is a lot of evidence for the defence.
Coming back to the text more than a dozen tumultuous years later, I believe its premises hold up. Progressive, populist and grassroots constituencies have had many victories. Popular power has continued to be a profound force for change. And the changes we have undergone, both wonderful and terrible, are astonishing.
This is an extraordinary time full of vital, transformative movements that could not be foreseen. It is also a nightmarish time. Full engagement requires the ability to perceive both. The 21st century has seen the rise of hideous economic inequality, perhaps due to amnesia both of the working people who countenance declines in wages, working conditions and social services, and the elites who forgot that they conceded to some of these things in the hope of avoiding revolution. The attack on civil liberties, including the right to privacy, continues long after its global war on terror justifications have faded away.
Worse than these is the arrival of climate change, faster, harder and more devastating than scientists anticipated. Hope doesnt mean denying these realities. It means facing them and addressing them by remembering what else the 21st century has brought, including the movements, heroes and shifts in consciousness that address these things now. This has been a truly remarkable decade for movement-building, social change and deep shifts in ideas, perspective and frameworks for large parts of the population (and, of course, backlashes against all those things).
It is important to say what hope is not: it is not the belief that everything was, is or will be fine. The evidence is all around us of tremendous suffering and destruction. The hope I am interested in is about broad perspectives with specific possibilities, ones that invite or demand that we act. It is also not a sunny everything-is-getting-better narrative, though it may be a counter to the everything-is-getting-worse one. You could call it an account of complexities and uncertainties, with openings. Critical thinking without hope is cynicism, but hope without critical thinking is naivety, the Bulgarian writer Maria Popova recently remarked. And Patrisse Cullors, one of the founders of Black Lives Matter, early on described the movements mission as to Provide hope and inspiration for collective action to build collective power to achieve collective transformation, rooted in grief and rage but pointed towards vision and dreams. It is a statement that acknowledges that grief and hope can coexist.
The tremendous human rights achievements not only in gaining rights but in redefining race, gender, sexuality, embodiment, spirituality and the idea of the good life of the past half-century have flowered during a time of unprecedented ecological destruction and the rise of innovative new means of exploitation. And the rise of new forms of resistance, including resistance enabled by an elegant understanding of that ecology and new ways for people to communicate and organise, and new and exhilarating alliances across distance and difference.
Read more: http://imgur.com/gallery/auY8D